J1c2c3 Haplogroup - King Richard III and David Brinkman

A special thanks to James Lick for developing and supporting the mtDNA Haplogroup Analysis tool which produced the following results. The FTDNA full sequence mtDNA analysis also gave the same J1c2c3 result for David Brinkman. The complete J1c2c3 research results on the bones of King RIchard III can be found at this link: Nature: Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

Above: David Brinkman's mtDNA mutations that define him as J1c2c3.

For those that have tested with 23andme, a J1c2c3 is reported as a J1c2c but you can check your raw DNA data
for the mutation that defines J1c2c3. The following two screen shots show you how to do this. If the result is "G",
then you are a J1c2c3 and a perfect matched to King Richard III. If there is not a "G", then you still share a common
great grandmother with Richard III but it could date back as far as 5000 years.

Screen 1

screen 2